Category Archives: vegetarian

Lagana: Ash Monday’s traditional bread

Ash Monday or Clean Monday, marks the beginning of Lent, a 7-week period of strict fasting, in preparation for Easter. During this time, the Greek Orthodox church prohibits the consumption of all animal products (meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs). Seafood is allowed, but on some days even olive oil is proscribed. Essentially, the faithful become vegans for 48 days.

Although the long Lenten fast is considered -by even the most pious- a strict and difficult fast, Greeks begin it with a bang, a traditional feast, featuring the best of the allowed foods. Customs vary from place to place as to what this meal may include but the undisputed must of the day is a sesame-sprinkled flat bread called Lagana.

It is said that originally Lagana was unleavened, however these days it is always made of leavened bread dough, sometimes with the addition of a little sugar. That means that if you know how to make bread, you know how to make Lagana.

Let’s get started:

Lagana (Greek Lenten flat bread) recipe

Active cooking time: about 30 minutes

Rising time: about 20 minutes

Baking time: about 30 minutes

Recipe of medium complexity (easy for those with some bread-making experience)

Appropriate for vegetarians and vegans. Kosher & Halal.

Ingredients for one large lagana

1/2 kilo (1 pound) of flour (see Note 1, below)

Dry yeast and water, proportional to the amount of flour you’ll be using

a little salt

sesame seeds

Optional ingredients

1-2 tablespoons of sugar

2 tablespoons of olive oil

Utensils Bowl for mixing the dough, countertop or table, large baking tin (optional: baking paper, rolling pin).

Preparation Grease your baking tin or line it with baking paper. Sift your flour (or flours) with the salt and dry yeast in a large bowl.

Note 1: All purpose flour will do, but you may also use whole-grain, gluten-free or any other kind or combination you fancy. The golden rule is, if you like it in bread, you’ll like it in a lagana.

Note 2: Although yeast is more or less the same everywhere, not all brands are. Read the instructions on the package and use the recommended amount. Fresh or frozen (thawed) yeast may also be used, if you have them. This yeast must be diluted in lukewarm water before use. Take care not to leave any undiluted lumps. Pour it through a sieve into the “crater” and proceed as below.

Make a “crater” in your flour and pour in some of the water, which must be lukewarm.

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Note 3: Your water must be somewhat warm for the yeast to rise. Too hot and it will kill off your yeast, too cold and your dough will take ages to rise.

Note 4: Metals conduct heat so well that they will cool down your dough and delay rising. Use a plastic or wooden bowl and a wooden table or synthetic countertop, if possible.

Gradually start pulling the flour in the water. Your aim is to have a sticky mixture, into which all flour is incorporated. Add small amounts of water as needed, careful not to overdo it.

Note 5: No one can tell you how much water your flour will hold. That depends on the kind of flour you’re using, its quality, environmental conditions (heat, humidity), even altitude. Use caution when adding water or you risk getting a batter instead of a dough.

lagana (5)

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Flour your countertop well and empty the dough on it. It will be very sticky.

lagana (7)

Start kneading, by folding the dough in half, then pushing down on it hard, stretching it at the same time. Then give it a quarter turn and repeat. Reflour the countertop every few rounds to keep the dough from sticking onto it. Continue until you have a smooth, elastic ball.

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Put the ball in your baking pan and flatten it with your hands. If you’ve done things right it should be elastic and trying to go back into being a ball. I’ve found that using a rolling pin solves the problem.

Roll a thick sheet and wrap it around the pin for transfer. Lay it carefully in the baking tin and spray with a little water (so that the sesame sticks). Sprinkle the sesame and poke the bread with your fingertips here and there, to create the trademark dimples.

Cover with a towel and let it rise in a warm place, away from drafts.

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Note 6: Rising needs a warm environment: a cosy home will do, but if it’s cold you may want to cover your lagana (pan and all) with a blanket or two. Alternatively, put it in the oven at 30 ⁰C (86 ⁰F) convection. If using the first method, preheat your oven at 180 ⁰C (356 ⁰F). If using the second, simply turn up the heat when it’s time to bake.

After about 20 minutes in a warm environment, the lagana should have risen and be ready for baking. Bake for 20-30 minutes, depending on the thickness of your Lagana and how soft or crispy you like it.

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Note 7: Lagana makes excellent sandwiches. Just cut a piece, slice it in half horizintaly and fill with whatever strikes your fancy. It also freezes well. Simply cut into pieces and freeze in plastic bags.

Jumbo beans casserole (gigantes fournou)

“Gigantes” in Greek means literaly “giants.” This recipe will work with any bean but it is traditionally made with the largest of white beans called, of course, “giants.”

Whether a hearty main course or an appetiser, served before the main course, this is a delicious dish. It is so filling, that I can’t help wondering why it was ever thought of as an appetiser. Perhaps the idea came to a thrifty housewife with too many guests and not a big enough chicken for everyone – who knows?

The recipe is quite straightforward: cook the beans, prepare a sauce, then mix both together and cook again in a casserole dish.

Jumbo beans casserole (gigantes fournou)

Preparation time: 8+ hours

Active cooking time: about 30 minutes

Recipe of medium complexity

Appropriate for vegetarians, vegans, diabetics, celiacs. Kosher & Halal.


For the beans

½ kilo (1 lb) of large (jumbo) beans; water

For the sauce

½ cup of olive oil

2 onions

4 cloves of garlic

1 cup of parsley, chopped

1 kilo (2 lb) of fresh tomatoes or ½ kilo (1 lb) of concentrated tomato juice

Salt and pepper to taste, a pinch of red pepper, some oregano, a teaspoon of sugar


Large pot or pressure cooker, deep skillet or wide pot, colander, deep casserole dish



Overnight, sort the beans and wash well. Put them in a large pot and cover them with plenty of water. Let them soak for 8-18 hours.


Tip 1: The longer they soak, the faster they’ll cook. If you forget to soak them overnight, try soaking them in hot water in the morning. They should be ready to cook by the time you get back from work.

The next day, set the heat to high and bring the pot to a rolling boil. Let the beans boil one or two minutes – they will froth.


Strain them using a colander.


Rinse the pot, fill it with water and put it back on the stove. Once the water boils, add the beans. Reduce heat and boil till tender. Pour the beans and cooking liquid into a deep casserole dish.


Tip 2: If you need to top up the water while cooking, use hot water; cold water will wash away the flavor and the beans will taste bland.

Tip 3: In a pressure cooker the beans will cook in 20-40 minutes, depending on their size, age (old ones cook longer) and how long they soaked.

While the beans cook, preheat the oven to 200 °C (392 °F).

Chop the onion and garlic.



Sauté the onions in a deep skillet until translucent.


Then push them aside to form a crater and, when the oil pools there, add the garlic.


Tip 4: Garlic lends a wonderful flavour to the food if it is sautéed in hot oil. However, it burns easily and turns bitter, destroying the flavour of the dish when cooked on a high heat for a long time. That is the reason for the crater: the garlic will fry in hot oil, but will not overcook, as the onions are already cooked. Turn the heat down almost immediately.

Turn the fire to low and cook slowly, stirring often, until the onions caramelise.


Add the tomato sauce and sugar.


Cook for about 15 minutes or until the liquid has been reduced by half. Add the chopped parsley and spices, reduce heat and cook until all the water has completely evaporated.


Tip 5: You may replace parsley with celery. If you do, sauté the celery with the onion and garlic. Omit the oregano.

Taste and adjust the seasonings to your liking, then pour the tomato sauce over the beans.


Stir well, until all the beans are immersed in the sauce.


Bake for 45 minutes, pulling the dish out of the oven and gently stirring the beans 2-3 times while they cook, so that all cook evenly.



Tip 6: The aim of baking is for the flavours to blend and the sauce to thicken. The beans will not cook further (the acidity of the tomato will prevent that), so they must be done to your liking before baking.

Tip 7: The sauce should be moderately runny when you take it out of the oven, but it should set as it cools. For the dish to succeed, the beans should have no less than 2 cups of the water they were cooked in when they are put in the casserole. Otherwise the dish will be unpleasantly dry.

Tip 8: This dish improves if left a day or two in the fridge for the flavours to blend. You may use it as a main course in the middle of the week and then serve it as an appetiser during the weekend, when you entertain guests. “Upping” the number of dishes on the table by this simple method is a trick used by Greek housewives of old to impress guests with their home-making skills.

Tip 9: Jumbo beans freeze well, without losing flavour or texture.

Bon appétit!